KPMG has engaged with several UK headquartered multinationals to address how to proceed with future, and dissimilar, demands for transparency. Although focused on UK based organisations, the framework promotes valuable Best Practices that can be used globally. A link to the insightful article is provided for reference:
Five themes for a tax disclosure framework:
- Strategy/policy and approach to tax
- Tax policy
- Tax planning and risk approach
- Engagement with tax authorities
- Tax risk governance
- Link between tax strategy and governance
- Tax compliance and tax risk monitoring
- Non-compliance governance tools
- Business model
- Overview, including tax attributes for effective tax rate and cash taxes
- Transfer pricing overview
- Operations in low tax jurisdictions
- Tax contribution
- Data/narrative re: sales, profits and taxes paid
- Types of taxes paid and use of a company’s profits
- Specific information related to material issues
- Tax losses/carryovers
- Tax incentives/holidays
- Material items, such as pension contributions
The above issues exemplify the difficulty in developing a comprehensive framework, or flexible tool, to meet the varying transparency demands resulting from OECD, EU and UN guidelines and unilateral legislation efforts around the world.
The most important point is that the timing for the thought processes for a tax disclosure framework is now; there are no signs of the demand for tax transparency diminishing.
EY’s article highlights the importance of planning a proactive risk strategy re: reputation risk. A link to the article is provided for reference:
- Six distinct actions
- Actively monitor the changing landscape
- Assess readiness/desire to respond
- Enhance communication with stakeholders
- Drill into the details to prepare the total tax picture
- Decide on whom communication is to be established
- Embed reputation risk into daily business strategy
- Questions for self-assessment, gleaned from this topic:
- Who monitors media coverage of the company
- Who monitors social media channels re: the tax function
- Who monitors new tax disclosures to assess trends and new compliance requirements
- Is the tax structure transparent re: taxes paid by country
- Do profits and taxes paid align? If not, rationalize the gap
- Who follows tax litigation in each jurisdiction
- Is the (tax) risk officer aligned with tax strategies
- Are Board members aware of new documentation requirements to assess tax strategy around the world
- Has the legal team been educated on BEPS actions and related company strategies
- Is there a metric to measure reputation risk
- What new disclosures are taking place
- Will the company address questions from the public
- Should more tax information be disclosed to mitigate reputation risk
- What information is shared with investors; does the current process need to be reviewed
- Is tax risk an element of every new business initiative/strategy
- What functions are aware of BEPS and the changing landscape
This article is a snapshot for an increasingly important risk: a company’s reputation. As new tax disclosures emerge around the world, interrelated with Board awareness and acknowledgment, it is imperative that the subject of reputation risk is addressed as an immediate priority by all companies. As soon as there is damaging press, truthful or not, it may be too late to respond.
This subject is also of importance for tax administrations: tax information is confidential and technical areas may be unclear, thus a company’s rights should be protected while an issue is raised, investigated and ultimately resolved. The tax administration’s reputation risk is also of paramount importance, as it looks to increase trust and establish an understanding of a company’s functions, assets and risks within the relevant jurisdiction.
Deloitte’s Audit Committee Brief includes a summary and questions outlining Risk oversight and Tax considerations for audit committees. A link to the publication is provided for reference:
- Audit committees may have a risk committee (Will this be a continuing trend?)
- Tone at the top is imperative for effective risk oversight
- Insightful questions for consideration:
- What internal controls are in place to address significant tax risks?
- Is there a clear approach and justification for where risk issues are placed?
- Is there a widely communicated process to quickly bring risk-related issues to the Board?
- What issues should the audit (risk) committee be aware of when evaluating potential risks?
Risk governance is rapidly becoming the new norm, both by tax administrations to understand and rate risks of a taxpayer as well as an effective tax risk policy and framework for a multinational to identify and mitigate risks. This trend will require additional resources to fulfill such commitments, immediately and ongoing.
The Angolan transfer pricing documentation submission deadline was 30 June 2015 re: tax year 2014 for large taxpayers. EY’s publication provides details on the recent enforcement penalties, including business limitations and reputational risk considerations notwithstanding the insignificant penalty amount for late filing.
Key observations / lessons learned:
- Insignificant monetary penalties due to non-filing or incomplete transfer pricing documentation may be a consideration in modifying a standard OECD documentation template based on cost/benefit. However, other factors that may be ignored in this analysis may have more inherent risks for consideration.
- Business and reputational risks should be an essential input for filing complete, and accurate, transfer pricing documentation. As countries seek to individualize such documentation, this task is more timely and costly, although ignoring such nuances may prove to be damaging.
- In Angola, the list of non-compliant taxpayers are provided to the National Bank of Angola (via requirements of a Presidential Decree). Accordingly, inclusion on this list may limit foreign exchange transactions ongoing.
The Senate Economics References Committee has published its interim report entitled “Corporate tax avoidance.” Part I, “You cannot tax what you cannot see” provides an excellent frame of reference for the discussions therein.
It is worthwhile noting that there is a section “Government Senators’ Dissenting Report” expressing concerns about some recommendations therein; this should be a additional warning sign of the recommendations put forth. Conversely, there are “Additional Comments from the Australian Greens” fully supporting the report in its entirety.
The final report is due in November 2015, although this interim release provides an indication of the thought trends currently in process by the Australian Tax Office (AT0). A link to the report is provided for reference:
- 17 recommendations provided addressing (1) evidence of, and multilateral efforts to combat, tax avoidance and aggressive minimization, (2) multilateral actions to protect Australia’s revenue base, and (3) capacity of Australian government agencies to collect corporate taxes.
- Australian government to work with other countries having significant marketing hubs to improve the transparency of information
- Australian government continues to take the load re: OECD BEPS initiatives; international collaboration should not prevent the Australian Government from taking unilateral action
- Mandatory tax reporting (transparency) code
- Existing transparency laws to be identical for private and public companies
- Public register of tax avoidance settlements reached with the ATO
- Public excerpts from the Country-by-Country OECD reports, based on the EU’s standards
- Annual public report on aggressive tax minimization and avoidance activities
- Section 3.95 discusses a novel concept: “Effective tax borne” effective tax rate formula, a metric that seeks to reflect all of the channel profit derived from business activities involving Australia and the Australian and global tax paid on that channel profit. Appendix 3 provides additional rules for application of this formula, noting that there has not yet been a consultation with taxpayers or other stakeholders. The metric envisions that the entire supply chain profit is a profit of the economic group arising from Australian business activities (i.e. intercompany purchases of goods and services from offshore related parties). Numerator is either the Australian tax paid on business activities by the economic group, or the global tax paid by such group. Denominator is the total economic profit from business activities which are linked to Australia. Withholding taxes of economic group profit are includable, whereas royalties and excises are not. Numerous rules apply for intercompany adjustments.
Australia is still recognized as a leader in the pursuit of the BEPS objectives, using transparency as a weapon to fight ensuing battles.
This report not only extends the strong cry for public disclosure of tax information, it suggests a new concept to examine the effective tax rate of jurisdictions having activities with an Australian related party. However, it is hopeful the envisaged complexity, cost/benefit and technical nuances of the “effective tax borne” concept are presented to stakeholders with enough time to review, plan and adjust/eliminate the final recommendation accordingly.
As Australia leads, many others follow. This report is required reading for all interested parties, as the ideas presented have a high probability of appearing in other jurisdictions in a similar form and formulating the same intent for transparency.
EY’s Global Tax Alert provides a succinct summary of the latest BEPS (incentivized) developments around the world. A link to the Alert is provided for reference:
Overview of the Alert:
- OECD: Documents re: initiative for automatic exchange of financial account information
- Africa: Best Practice regional meeting to develop measures for countering BEPS
- Australia: Exposure draft law re: transfer pricing documentation to be effective 1/1/2016
- Brazil: Report to eliminate interest on net equity (INE) regime
- Chile: Foreign residents are to provide a sworn statement to receive treaty benefits
- Europe: TAXE Committee’s interim report re: tax rulings and BEPS related topics
- Ireland: Knowledge development box
- Italy: Patent box regime
- Japan: Interest limitations
- Korea: VAT re: electronic services
- Luxembourg: EU Parent-Subsidiary Directive inclusions (anti-hybrid and anti-abuse clauses)
- Saudi Arabia: Virtual Service PE
- Spain: Patent box regime
The Alert highlights the continuous and frenzied pace of the BEPS measures, as well as the unilateral efforts that are mirroring the intent of BEPS, although not necessarily in a consistent and cohesive framework.
The Australian Tax Office (ATO) has issued a very interesting Practice Statement Law Administration. It is an informal policy document for which interested parties should submit comments by 25 September. The Statement is a lengthy document, citing case law, that is very worthwhile reading, as Australia continues its proactive efforts driving change in the international tax arena.
Although informal, taxpayers can rely on such guidance for protection from interest and penalties. A copy of the Statement is provided for reference:
- A general anti-avoidance rule (GAAR) cannot be applied before a determination by the Tax Counsel Network (TCN).
- A GAAR decision is generally referred to a GAAR Panel (an independent advisory body) before a final decision is made.
- The taxpayer may be invited to attend a Panel meeting to assist the deliberative process.
- Concepts of a tax scheme and a tax benefit are discussed. A tax benefit inclusive in Part IVA, the GAAR provision relates to: an amount not included in income, an allowable deduction, a capital loss, a tax loss carry back, a foreign income tax offset or withholding tax.
- An alternative hypothesis” or “alternative postulate” identification is discussed; what would have happened or might reasonably be expected to have happened if the particular scheme had not been entered into or carried out.
- It is for the court to determine objectively what alternative would have occurred if the scheme had not been carried out.
- Arguably, there is no longer a test of reasonable exception, based on Parliament’s intention in enacting the Amendments.
- Warning signs that GAAR may apply (which ATO must consider) are established:
- Arrangement is out of step ordinarily used to achieve the commercial objective,
- Arrangement seems more complex than necessary,
- Tax result does not conform to the commercial or economic result,
- Arrangement is low risk where significant risks would normally apply,
- Parties are operating in a non-arm’s length manner, or
- Gap between substance and legal form.
- Penalties are applicable.
- Division 165 (a GST GAAR rule) is discussed, including permanent and timing differences.
- A “dominant purpose” test is applicable for the GAAR and the GST provisions, with different factors includable in each.
The above provisions attempt to conceptualize objective factors for an inherently subjective GAAR determination. As additional GAAR’s are introduced around the world, each applying a different level of subjectivity, the Statement is helpful in understanding the rationale and intent of the ATO.
Tax planning post-BEPS will require additional GAAR documentation for significant transactions, thereby requiring tax to be involved early in the discussions to understand the business intent and alternatives considered.