Strategizing International Tax Best Practices – by Keith Brockman

The UK EU exit bill has been introduced in Parliament, paving the way for suggested interpretations of:

  • Existing EU law
  • Loss of EU Directives
  • New customs regime
  • Transitional EU VAT case law
  • Social security contributions/benefits
  • Corporation tax impact of UK vs. EU law/Directives
  • Employee mobility
  • Employment law

This document portrays a glimpse into the thoughts behind the complex and myriad evolutions that will take place with the Brexit negotiations.  Tax, supply chains, individual changes, VAT, etc. and related unknown implications are still to be discovered; the EY Global Tax Alert provides a primer into the brave new world of a country exiting the EU.  Note, this is also a valuable reference for other countries considering this option.

http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/UK_Government_introduces_European_Union_(Withdrawal)_Bill/$FILE/2017G_04283-171Gbl_UK%20Government%20introduces%20European%20Union%20Withdrawal%20Bill.pdf

On 22 June 2017, the “Platform for Collaboration on Tax” (the Platform) – a joint effort of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), United Nations (UN), International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank Group (WBG) – released a toolkit (the Toolkit) designed to help developing countries address the lack of “comparables” for transfer pricing analyses and better understand mineral product pricing practices.

This Toolkit should also be reviewed by multinationals (MNEs) in developing countries to address the potential lack of comparables to better understand how the tax authorities will approach a transfer pricing audit.  The mining supplement is required reading for those working in that industry.

Additional toolkits will be forthcoming:

  • TP documentation
  • Indirect transfer of assets
  • Base eroding payments
  • Tax treaty negotiation capacity
  • Supply chain management
  • BEPS risk assessment

As the first edition of the Toolkit has now been published, it will be interesting to watch developing countries apply the tools prescribed, providing a baseline going forward.  All international tax practitioners should be familiar with this latest joint endeavor, as it is an indication of the shared resource approach that is now our future.

EY’s Global Tax Alert provides additional details, and the OECD Toolkit are referenced for review.

http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/OECD_UN_IMF_and_World_Bank_issue_toolkit_for_addressing_difficulties_in_accessing_comparable_data_for_transfer_pricing_analysis/$FILE/2017G_04037-171Gbl_OECD%20UN%20IMF%20and%20World%20Bank%20issue%20toolkit%20for%20difficulties%20in%20accessing%20comparable%20data%20for%20TP%20analysis.pdf

http://www.oecd.org/tax/toolkit-on-comparability-and-mineral-pricing.pdf

OECD / BEPS update

EY’s Global Tax Alert provides a succinct summary of the latest OECD and BEPS developments, including:

  • G20 and exchange of information upon request standard
  • Multilateral instrument, 68 countries moving forward
  • Peer reviews on BEPS 4 minimum standards:
    • Action 5, harmful tax practices
    • Action 6, treaty abuse
    • Action 13, country-by-country reporting (CbCR)
    • Action 14, dispute resolution
  • Action 5 peer reviews of preferential tax regimes
  • Action 13, CbCR exchange relationships; important for US MNE’s and similar jurisdictions without obligatory 2016 reporting
  • MAP peer reviews
  • Discussion drafts on profit splits and attribution of profits re: PE’s; comment period to Sept. 15, 2017
  • Branch mismatch forthcoming revisions
  • Common reporting standard
  • Digital taxation

OECD is still very busy, with a plethora of BEPS follow-up and other activities, although there seems to be continuing flexibility to gain collaboration that will also lead to added complexity and disputes.

http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/OECD_shares_updates_on_tax_activities_in_26_June_2017_Tax_Talk_webcast/$FILE/2017G_04094-171Gbl_OECD%20provides%20updates%20on%20tax%20activities%20in%20Tax%20Talk%20webcast.pdf

The European Commission has proposed a new Directive calling for additional transparency into cross-border arrangements.  Initially, this proposal has the liability for such reporting borne by the advisor, however it may apparently be also transferred to the taxpayer.  The effective date would be 1//1/2019 with recurring reporting by the EU Member States on a quarterly basis thereafter.

In a common theme when the “transparency’ envelope is opened, the relevant basket of potential transactions is widened from the most aggressive to ordinary tax-planning transactions.  Hopefully, if the Directive is adopted, the Member States will use discretion and ask questions about such transactions prior to drawing intuitive conclusions  and assessing taxpayers before having all facts and transactional history for consideration.

The potential transactions include arrangements:

  • To which a confidentiality clause is attached
  • Where the fee is fixed by reference to the amount of the tax advantage derived or whether a tax advantage is actually derived
  • That involve standardized documentation which does not need to be tailored for implementation
  • Which use losses to reduce tax liability
  • Which convert income into capital or other categories of revenue which are taxed at a lower level
  • Which include circular transactions resulting in the round-tripping of funds
  • Which include deductible cross-border payments which are, for a list of reasons, not fully taxable where received (e.g., recipient is not resident anywhere, zero or low tax rate, full or partial tax exemption, preferential tax regime, hybrid mismatch)
  • Where the same asset is subject to depreciation in more than one jurisdiction
  • Where more than one taxpayer can claim relief from double taxation in respect of the same item of income in different jurisdictions
  • Where there is a transfer of assets with a material difference in the amount treated as payable in consideration for those assets in the jurisdictions involved
  • Which circumvent EU legislation or arrangements on the automatic exchange of information (e.g., by using jurisdictions outside exchange of information arrangements, or types of income or entities not subject to exchange of information)
  • Which do not conform to the “arms’ length principle” or to OECD transfer pricing guidelines
  • Which fall within the scope of the automatic exchange of information on advance cross-border rulings but which are not reported or exchanged

The proposal will be submitted to the European Parliament for consideration; this additional layer of transparent information will also be viewed by other countries as potential tools to uncover similar arrangements.  Several “arrangements” are also highly subjective, leading to additional transfer pricing disputes and increased double taxation.

EY’s Global Tax Alert provides additional details for this important proposal:

http://www.ey.com/gl/en/services/tax/international-tax/alert–european-commission-proposes-new-transparency-rules-for-intermediaries

The recent election, resulting in the Conservative Party losing a majority, introduces additional uncertainty into the Brexit process and also affects the Finance Act.

What will happen to the tabled Finance Act proposals that were deleted by the fast-track changes in the last amendment?  Additionally, what will be the effective dates, if they are formally introduced at a later date, April 2017, upon introduction or possible extending into 2018 or not at all based on the political uncertainty.

The normally routine Finance Act process, with no amendments and straightforward measures that can be planned for upon announcement, is no longer true.  At this moment, the tabled measures should not be considered probable to happen due to the new political nightmare that was self-created although not envisioned.

It is hopeful the UK Parliament will stabilize this process going forward, although in the near future there is no definitive certainty.

EY’s Global Tax Alert provides additional details:

http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/The_UK_election_and_its_implications_for_Finance_Act_measures_and_tax_proposals/$FILE/2017G_03722-171Gbl_UK%20election%20and%20its%20implications%20for%20Finance%20Act%20measures%20and%20tax%20proposals.pdf

The OECD provides a comprehensive list of countries that have signed the new multilateral instrument (MLI).

Most importantly, each country’s position on the various positions with other countries can be viewed.  While being transparent, this myriad of menu selections will produce an even more complex environment globally.  The strive for collaboration is somewhat achieved, based on more than 60 countries executing this document.  However, the goal of simplification can certainly be questioned.

OECD’s press release and a link to this list is provided for reference.  All international tax practitioners should review this long-awaited document.

http://www.oecd.org/tax/treaties/multilateral-convention-to-implement-tax-treaty-related-measures-to-prevent-beps.htm

On May 29. 2017 the EU Council adopted the Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive (ATAD), to be effective by 1/1/2020 between EU and the rest of world for hybrid mismatch arrangements.  This Directive is known as ATAD-2 and follows the intent of BEPS Action 2, hybrid mismatch arrangements.

ATAD 2 expands the scope to address hybrid permanent establishment (PE) mismatches, hybrid transfers, imported mismatches, reverse hybrid mismatches and dual resident mismatches.

EY’s Global Tax Alert provides additional details; all hybrid mismatch arrangements will be of limited use going forward to the extent they are included in these new rules.

http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/EU_Council_adopts_Directive_ATAD_2_to_address_hybrid_mismatches_with_third_countries/$FILE/2017G_03493-171Gbl_EU%20Council%20adopts%20Directive%20to%20address%20hybrid%20mismatches%20with%20third%20countries.pdf

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